In the dialogue between ancient philosophy and modern science, one of the most intriguing discussions revolves around the nature of reality itself. Is there a reality that exists independently of our minds, or is everything we perceive fundamentally intertwined with our consciousness? Graham P. Smetham’s paper, “The Myth of Mind-Independent Reality & the Metaphysics of Nondual Epiontic Quantum Mindnature,” dives deep into this question, challenging the traditional notion of a mind-independent reality (MIR) and presenting a compelling case for a reality that is inherently mind-dependent. This article explores Smetham’s arguments, drawing connections between Buddhist metaphysics and quantum physics to paint a picture of a nondual, mind-dependent universe.

For centuries, philosophers and scientists have grappled with the concept of reality. The prevailing view in much of Western philosophy has been that there exists an objective reality independent of our perceptions—a Mind-Independent Reality (MIR). Smetham’s paper, however, argues that this concept is deeply flawed. He asserts that reality, as something entirely beyond the mind’s comprehension or experience, is an ill-conceived notion. Instead, he introduces the idea of a ‘Metaphysics of Nondual Epiontic Quantum Mindnature,’ a perspective that finds no place for an MIR and views all phenomena as fundamentally mind-dependent.

To grasp the depth of Smetham’s argument, it is essential to integrate Buddhist metaphysical concepts with modern quantum physics. He draws upon the Mind-Only (Cittamatra) school of Buddhist thought, which posits that all phenomena are projections of the mind. This school outlines three natures of reality: the imaginary, the other-dependent, and the perfectly established nature. The imaginary nature refers to the mistaken belief in the independent existence of objects, the other-dependent nature describes how phenomena arise from interdependent causes and conditions, and the perfectly established nature is the realization of the ultimate truth that all phenomena are empty of inherent existence. These three natures provide a comprehensive account of the process of reality, which quantum physics seems to echo.

Quantum physics, especially through the principle of quantum nonlocality, challenges the idea of independent, self-contained objects. Experiments demonstrating the quantum violation of Bell’s inequality suggest a level of interconnectedness that defies the traditional, Cartesian-Newtonian view of matter. This interconnectedness resonates with the Buddhist concept of emptiness (shunyata), where all phenomena are devoid of inherent existence and are interdependently originated.

Smetham introduces the term ‘epiontic’ to describe the interplay between epistemology and ontology—how our knowledge and perceptions shape the very nature of reality. In this view, reality is not a static, mind-independent construct but a dynamic, mind-dependent process. It is important to note that ‘epiontic’ is a term coined by Smetham to emphasize this unique perspective. This aligns with the findings of quantum mechanics, where the act of observation plays a crucial role in determining the state of quantum systems.

The implications of Smetham’s arguments are profound. If reality is fundamentally mind-dependent, then our understanding of the universe must also account for the role of consciousness. This view challenges the long-held assumption that there is a clear demarcation between the observer and the observed, suggesting instead that the observer is an integral part of the reality being observed.

In exploring these ideas, Smetham engages with the works of various physicists and philosophers who have similarly questioned the notion of a mind-independent reality. He references Henry Stapp’s assertion that Cartesian-Newtonian type matter does not exist in nature and that reality is fundamentally mind-like. This view is supported by the quantum mechanical principle that the universe behaves in ways that are deeply interconnected and interdependent, much like the interconnectedness proposed by Buddhist metaphysics.


Vimal’s proposition of an MIR that is partially accessible through experience is critiqued for leading to confusion and contradiction. Smetham posits that a truly comprehensive understanding of reality must embrace the mind-dependent nature of all phenomena. He argues that Vimal’s MIR, being partially knowable, blends separate categories of mind and matter, creating a muddled understanding of reality. This blending leads to a situation where the distinctions between mind-dependent and mind-independent realities are unclear, which Smetham sees as inherently problematic.

Smetham also explores the Buddhist Madhyamaka philosophy, which asserts that all phenomena lack inherent existence. This view aligns closely with the implications of quantum physics, particularly the non-locality and interconnectedness revealed by quantum entanglement. Using Nagarjuna’s philosophical insights, Smetham argues that the idea of inherently existing entities is fundamentally flawed. According to Madhyamaka, all phenomena are ’empty’ of inherent existence, a concept that quantum physics supports by demonstrating that particles do not possess independent, fixed properties but are instead defined by their interactions and observations.

The Cittamatra (Mind-Only) perspective divides reality into three natures: the imagined, the dependent, and the thoroughly established. Smetham correlates these with the quantum mechanical framework, suggesting that our perceptions and consciousness actively shape the reality we experience. The Cittamatra view’s non-dualism parallels the ‘participatory universe’ concept in quantum physics, where the act of observation is crucial in forming reality.

The ‘epiontic’ nature of reality—where knowledge and being are interlinked—emphasizes that our understanding and interpretation of the world actively construct the nature of reality itself. This aligns with the Buddhist notion of interdependent origination and the quantum mechanical principle that particles do not have definite properties until they are observed.

The implications of Smetham’s work are both scientific and philosophical. If the reality we experience is deeply intertwined with our consciousness, then our perceptions are not just passive reflections of an external world but active participants in the creation of that world. This challenges us to rethink not just the boundaries between mind and matter but also the very nature of existence itself.

One way to understand Smetham’s argument is through the metaphor of a dream. Just as in a dream, the dreamer and the dreamed world are not separate entities, so too, in our waking life, the observer and the observed are deeply interconnected. The boundaries we perceive are illusions created by our consciousness, and understanding this can lead to a more integrated view of reality.

Smetham’s paper invites us to consider a paradigm shift in our understanding of reality. By integrating insights from Buddhist metaphysics and quantum physics, he presents a vision of a deeply interconnected universe where mind and matter are not separate but are two sides of the same coin. This perspective challenges our traditional views and offers a richer, more nuanced understanding of the nature of existence.

For those interested in delving deeper into this fascinating topic, Graham P. Smetham’s full paper, “The Myth of Mind-Independent Reality & the Metaphysics of Nondual Epiontic Quantum Mindnature,” is available for further reading below. This exploration into the mind-dependent nature of reality not only broadens our philosophical horizons but also opens new avenues for scientific inquiry, urging us to rethink the very foundations of how we perceive and interact with the world around us.

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